Studente se persepsies oor die moontlike oordrag van akademiese geletterheidsvaardighede na ander leerkontekste

Karlien Cillié, Marisca Coetzee

Abstract


Die eksplisiete onderrig van kennis- en vaardigheidsoordrag speel ’n integrale rol in beide die kritieke en spesifieke uitkomste van hoër onderwys juis omdat hierdie tipe aanleg die vermoë om te dink, te redeneer, te beplan en ooreenkomstige besluite op ’n strategiese wyse te neem, onderlê. Vir menige studente geskied die vaardigheid van oordrag nie outomaties nie aangesien die toepassing daarvan gesofistikeerde nadenke oor die abstrahering van die korrekte patroon/formule/beginsels vanuit een situasie vir toepassing op ’n gelyksoortige of totaal andersoortige situasie impliseer. Om onder andere hierdie rede dui navorsing oor die afgelope nege dekades (1920-2012) daarop dat onderriginstellings klaaglik daarin misluk om enige wesenlike oordrag by leerders en studente te bewerkstellig. Vervolgens word daar deur hierdie artikel gepoog om ’n bydrae te lewer tot die sentrale rol wat kennis- en vaardigheidsoordrag in institusionele beplanning rondom die kurrikulumaanbod van eerstejaarstudente speel. Die moontlikheid word ondersoek of ’n akademiesegeletterdheidsintervensie binne die eerstejaarskurrikulum ingespan kan word om die oordrag van kritiese denkvaardighede na ander leermodules te bewerkstellig, terwyl dit tergelyktydig aan die voorwaardes van suksesvolle oordrag, soos geïdentifiseer deur Perkins en Salomon (1992), voldoen: deeglike en diverse oefening, eksplisiete abstrahering, aktiewe selfmonitering, die gebruik van metafore en/of analogieë en die stimulering van opmerksaamheid. Nadat elke voorwaarde vir optimale oordrag aan die hand van kursusinhoud bespreek en kwalitatiewe data rakende die kursus geïllustreer word, word die afleiding gemaak dat sodanige intervensies nuttig en volhoubaar kan wees om studente te ondersteun deur hulle met die nodige leesstrategieë en –vaardighede vir ander leerkontekste toe te rus.

Explicit instruction in the transfer of knowledge and skills plays an integral role in both the critical and specific outcomes of higher education. The reasoning is that this type of ability instils a capacity to think, reason, plan and to make corresponding decisions in a strategic manner. For many students, the transfer of certain skills is not automatic because their application is dependent on extensive consideration of the correct pattern/formula/principles. These may be applied in one situation but require a deliberate search for connections with other contexts. Research over the past nine decades (1920-2012) indicates that teaching institutions have mostly failed in their attempt to teach their students any effective means of transfer. The aim of this article is to contribute to the central role that the transfer of knowledge and skills plays in the institutional planning of the curriculum offered to first-year students. In it, the possibility of using an academic literacy intervention, within the first year curriculum, to enable the transfer of critical thinking skills to other learning modules is investigated. The conditions for successful transfer, by means of systematic practice, explicit conceptualisation, active self-monitoring, the use of metaphors and/or analogies and the role of mindfulness, as identified by Perkins and Salomon (1992), are also examined. Each condition for optimal transfer is then discussed on the basis of course content, supported by the relevant qualitative data. In the article, a conclusion is reached that such interventions could be used to equip students with the necessary reading strategies and skills to cope successfully in other learning contexts.


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.5785/29-1-538

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